The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a genuine state with a rich history despite its small size. Situated in the heart of Europe, between France, Belgium and Germany, it has participated in the great European developments and is the only country to have experienced the turbulent history of Europe. Under Napoleon, it was the focus of the power struggles of the great nations before gaining independence.
During the French Revolution, more precisely under the Convention, France conquered the Duchy of Luxembourg once again in 1794, its fortress capitulating the following year. This was followed by the annexation of its territory, the transformation of two thirds of it into a French department in 1795 and the dissolution of the remaining third into two other new departments in 1797 under the Directoire regime.
In 1815, the collapse of Napoleon's empire led to a redrawing of the map of Europe with the obvious aim of creating a barrier against France, with Luxembourg becoming a separate political entity. Luxembourg became a grand duchy and joined the Germanic Confederation, a defensive association of 39 German states, making the stronghold of Luxembourg a federal fortress.
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